The Board was setup in the year 1921 at Allahabad by an act of United Provinces Legislative Council. It conducted its first examination in 1923. This Board is one in India which, from the very start, had adopted 10+2 system of examination. The first public examination after 10 years education is High School Examination and after the 10+2 stage, there is Intermediate Examination. Prior to 1923, University of Allahabad was the examining body of these two examinations.
Previously at High School level there were different streams of education namely, Arts, Science, Fine Arts, Agriculture, Technical Education, Commerce, etc.. But taking into consideration the need of a common core curriculum up to Class Xth, the Board revised its High School curriculum from its examination of the year 2000. Now in the new curriculum, there is no choice from several streams, instead there are 6 compulsory subjects viz., State language, i.e. Hindi, one other language, Social Science, Science, Mathematics and one subject of Moral, Physical, Socially Useful Productive and Social Work education, wherein, there is no external public examination, but continuous internal evaluation is done. There is only one optional subject.